Arunachal Pradesh becomes 2nd NE state to achieve ODF status[49]. Arunachal's forests account for one-third of habitat area within the Himalayan biodiversity hot-spot. [64] There are many saw mills in AP. Further south, one finds the Singpho (Kachin) language, which is primarily spoken by large populations in Myanmar's Kachin State, and the Nocte and Wancho languages, which show affiliations to certain Naga languages spoken to the south in modern-day Nagaland. The directorate of technical education conducts examinations yearly so that students who qualify can continue on to higher studies in other states. Arunachal Pradesh has close to 61,000 square kilometres of forests, and forest products are the next most significant sector of the economy. Another notable heritage site, Bhismaknagar (built-in the 8th century), has led to suggestions that the Chutia people had an advanced culture and administration. One can rightly call Arunachal Pradesh one of the best places for cultural holidays in India. Around 30% of the population are Christians. Modern-day Arunachal Pradesh is one of the linguistically richest and most diverse regions in all of Asia, being home to at least 30 and possibly as many as 50 distinct languages in addition to innumerable dialects and subdialects thereof. [89][90], On 20 February 2015 the first through train was run from New Delhi to Naharlagun, flagged off from the capital by the Indian prime minister, Narendra Modi. The North-East Frontier Agency was renamed as Arunachal Pradesh by Sri Bibhabasu Das Shastri, the Director of Research and K.A.A. [78] Before the state was connected by roads, these airstrips were used to distribute food. Its major industries are rice mills, fruit preservation and processing units, and handloom handicrafts. [87] China has warned India against paving the road. [59] Three new giant flying squirrels were also described from the state during the last one and half-decade. of Arunachal Pradesh Best viewed in IE 6.0 at 1024 * 768 pixel resolution Departments Conduct Massive Social Service at School Ground on Roaster Basis, The Governor meets Khathing family members. Seemingly, Khampti is a recent arrival in Arunachal Pradesh whose presence dates to 18th and/or early 19th-century migrations from northern Myanmar. © 2021 Department of Information, Public Relation & Printing, Members of State Legislative Assembly – 2019, List of Chief Ministers of Arunachal Pradesh, Government Accomodation in Capital Complex, Ering inaugurates covid-19 vaccination at BPGH, Governor calls for Central Assistance in revamping security issues and Border Area Development. This is the Portal of Department of Information & Public Relations, developed with an objective to enable a single window access to information and services being provided by the Government of Arunachal Pradesh. India has rebutted these claims and informed the Chinese government that Tawang is an integral part of India. Hindi acts as a lingua franca for most of the people in the state. Soochna Bhawan, Papu Nallah. Pema Khandu further joined BJP in December 2016 along with majority of MLAs. ... with an objective to enable a single window access to information and services being provided by the Government of Arunachal Pradesh. Moving east, the Idu, Miju and Digaru make up the Mishmi cultural-linguistic area. ... with an objective to enable a single window access to information and services being provided by the Government of Arunachal Pradesh. Jhum cultivation is the major occupation practised by the farmers. ITANAGAR: The Arunachal Pradesh government decided to resume coal mining in the state, which has been suspended since May, 2012 after a direction by the Centre following involvement of insurgent groups in the extraction process, officials said here on Tuesday. Those between the Siang and Noa Dihing are classified as the Mishmi Hills that may be part of the Hengduan Mountains. The population of Arunachal Pradesh forms 0.11 percent of India in 2011. The plan is also applicable for the products as informed via the union government from time to time. Arunachal Pradesh – northeasternmost state of the Republic of India. They follow the Theravada sect of Buddhism. (xv) Formulation of industrial policy. INDUSTRIES DEPARTMENT. Select your Arunachal pradesh District to know the list of Companies in your District. and 600 A.D. (ii) Promotion of Small Scale Industries. Within the Tani area, major tribes include the Nyishi. Almost all Tani languages are indigenous to central Arunachal Pradesh, including (moving from west to east) the Nyishi, the Apatani, the Tagin, the Galo, the Bokar, the Adi, the Padam, the Pasi, and the Minyong. With these things in mind, you can see a wide variety of languages spoken in different parts of the state. Its diverse topography offers opportunities for non-timber based industries such as bamboo, cane and medicinal plants. The vast majority of languages indigenous to modern-day Arunachal Pradesh belong to the Tibeto-Burman family. The Indian army is present along the Tibetan border to thwart any Chinese incursion. Geographically, it is the largest among the North-east Indian states commonly known as the Seven Sister States. Finally, the Deori tribe is also a major community in the state, with their own distinctive identity. In the year 2000 Arunachal Pradesh was covered with 63,093 km2 (24,360 sq mi) of tree cover[53] (77% of its land area). Resurgence of the border disagreement was a factor leading to the Sino-Indian War in 1962, during which China captured most of Arunachal Pradesh. Below are the major towns in Arunachal Pradesh. Arunachal Pradesh has faced threats from insurgent groups, notably the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), who are believed to have base camps in the districts of Changlang and Tirap. [36] In November 1950, the PRC was poised to take over Tibet by force, and India supported Tibet. … INDUSTRY. Deoris are one of the only Arunachal tribes in the historical records – which shows they are among the first ethnic groups to inhabit the Himalayas of the districts of Dibang Valley and Lohit, before the arrival of many other tribes in the region between 1600 and 1900. Daporijo is a census town in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh.It is the land of Tagin Tribe. Toward the northern border with Tibet, with increasing elevation, come a mixture of Eastern and Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests followed by Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows and ultimately rock and ice on the highest peaks. Arunachal Pradesh formerly known as North Eastern Frontier Agency (NEFA) is called as “The Land of Rising Sun”. Its major industries are rice mills, fruit preservation and processing units, and handloom handicrafts. The Brahmaputra, India's major river enters this state from Tibet and flows into Assam from where it goes down to Bangladesh before falling into Bay of Bengal. In 2001, the figure was 0.11 percent. Literacy Rate: 65.38 per cent. The relationships of these languages, both amongst one another and to other area languages, are as yet uncertain. Arunachal Pradesh State Centre, Itanagar Content is owned and maintained by Department of Industries, Govt. US-based imaging company Planet Labs has, with the help of satellite images claimed that around 100 houses have been built along the river Tsari Chu in … The main universities are the Rajiv Gandhi University (formerly known as Arunachal University), under which come 36 institutions offering regular undergraduate courses as well as teacher education and health sciences and nursing degrees, both under governmental and private managements, Indira Gandhi Technological and Medical Sciences University and Himalayan University[92] as well. In January 2007, the Dalai Lama said that both Britain and Tibet had recognised the McMahon Line in 1914. Development of all industries will be encouraged. (ii) Promotion of Small Scale Industries. Electronics and knowledge based industries. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Arunachal Pradesh. Most speakers of these languages or closely related Bodic languages are found in neighbouring Bhutan and Tibet, and Monpa and Memba populations remain closely adjacent to these border regions. Arunachal Pradesh comprises two divisions i.e. Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) (PTI) BJP wins Pasighat civic body polls in Arunachal Pradesh 2 min read. B2B database of manufacturers, suppliers, and exporters in Arunachal Pradesh containing phone numbers and emails (CEOs, Directors, Department Managers), … [45] In April 2017, China strongly objected to a visit to Tawang by the Dalai Lama, as it had to an earlier visit by the US ambassador to India. In 1944, Britain established administrations in the area, from Dirang Dzong in the west to Walong in the east. There are a plethora of tribes that inhabit the state, making it quite colourful with its diverse culture and traditions. The climate of Arunachal Pradesh varies with elevation. The shifting cultivation which has come to be known as Jhuming which means collective farmingoccupies the central position in Arunachal Pradesh in the field of agriculture. Check it Out. College, Tezu (Grade B++), Rajiv Gandhi University (Grade B), National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh (Grade B), Dera Natung Government College, Itanagar (Grade B), Govt. Geographical Area (sq km): 83,743. NLCPR Projects in Arunachal Pradesh • For the development of infrastructure in Arunachal Pradesh and other North East States, New Delhi: As India and China continue to remain locked in a months-long bitter border standoff in eastern Ladakh, Beijing is undertaking construction work along with the border areas near Arunachal Pradesh, a report said. The sixth Dalai Lama Tsangyang Gyatso was born in Tawang. The state capital Itanagar was added to the Indian railway map on 12 April 2014 via the newly built 20-kilometre Harmuti-Naharlagun railway line, when a train from Dekargaon in Assam reached Naharlagun railway station, 10 kilometres from the centre of Itanagar, a total distance of 181 kilometres. College, Bomdila (Grade B), Donyi Polo Govt. Naharlagun and Pasighat are the other key cities in the state. Arunachal Pradesh accounts for a large percentage share of India’s untapped hydroelectric potential. Libraries of scriptures are in a number of places in Lohit district, the largest one being in Chowkham. Updated: 26 Dec 2020, 05:48 PM IST PTI . Check it Out. The state government is expanding the relatively underdeveloped education system with the assistance of NGOs like Vivekananda Kendra, leading to a sharp improvement in the state's literacy rate. Moving southeast, the Tai Khamti are linguistically distinct from their neighbours and culturally distinct from the majority of other Arunachalese tribes. The Monpa and Sherdukpen keep historical records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well. The Tibetan and British representatives devised the Simla Accord including the McMahon Line,[35] but the Chinese representatives did not concur. They are the descendants of the priestly class of Chutia people who were allowed to continue their livelihood after the defeat of the Chutias. After a political crisis in 2016, President's rule was imposed ending his tenure as the chief minister. State Language: Assamese, Bengali, Hindi and English. It supports many medicinal plants and within Ziro valley of Lower Subansiri district 158 medicinal plants are being used by its inhabitants. Arunachal Pradesh is the state of 26 major tribes and 100 of sub-tribes spread across all over the state. [18] Apart from these groups, other Tibeto-Burman groups Mishmis, Chutias, Nocte, Tangsa and Wancho also occupied different regions of the state. MAJOR INDUSTRIES. This Portal is designed and developed by State Council For IT & e-Governance (Dept of IT & C), Government of Arunachal Pradesh & Hosted at National Informatics Centre (NIC), Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology, Government of India. Rongoge Mega Food Park in Papum Pare district is under implementation where 30 food industries will be established to boost the sector and provide employment to 4,000 people. Daporijo is located at an elevation of 600 m above sea level. They teach Pali and Khamti scripts in addition to typical education subjects. Mountains south of the Noa Dihing in Tirap and Longding districts are part of the Patkai Range. Arunachal Pradesh State: Arunachal Pradesh Country: India Category: Indian-states Cities in Arunachal Pradesh. East and West, each headed by a divisional commissioner and twenty-five districts, each administered by a deputy commissioner. Boundaries between languages very often correlate with tribal divisions—for example, the Apatani and Nyishi are tribally and linguistically distinct—but shifts in tribal identity and alignment over time have also ensured that a certain amount of complication enters into the picture—for example, the Galo language is and has seemingly always been linguistically distinct from Adi, whereas the earlier tribal alignment of Galo with Adi (i.e., "Adi Gallong") has only recently been essentially dissolved. Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. [83][84][85][86] The proposed alignment of the Frontier Highway has been published. (iii) Industrial Estates/Growth Centres/District Industries Centre. Arunachal Pradesh can be roughly divided into a set of semi-distinct cultural spheres, on the basis of tribal identity, language, religion and material culture: the Tibetic-speaking Monpa area bordering Bhutan in the west, the Tani area in the centre of the state, the Mishmi area to the east of the Tani area, the Tai/Singpho/Tangsa area bordering Myanmar, and the Naga area to the south, which also borders Myanmar. The main highway of Arunachal Pradesh is the Trans-Arunachal Highway, National Highway 13 (1,293 km (803 mi); formerly NH-229 and NH-52). Check it Out. HOTEL ARUN SUBANSIRI. [22] Arunachal Pradesh accounts for a large percentage of India's untapped potential of producing hydroelectric power. Chattopadhyay, S. "History and Archeology of Arunachal Pradesh Chapter3: Archeological remains",p.76. Arunachal Pradesh is a state of distinct culture and is amongst the most gorgeous places in India. • Arunachal Pradesh, with an area of 83,743 sq km, is the largest state in the Northeast of India. (i) Major/Medium scale Industries. Arunachal Pradesh accounts for a large percentage share of India’s untapped hydroelectric potential. ARUNACHAL HORTICULTURE PROCESSING INDUSTRIES. It is located beside the river Subansiri, one of the principal rivers of Arunachal Pradesh and a major tributary of the mighty Brahmaputra. Fax: +91 832 2221490 [93] NERIST plays an important role in technical and management higher education. "Arunachal" redirects here. [43] According to the Dalai Lama, "In 1962 during the India-China war, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) occupied all these areas (Arunachal Pradesh) but they announced a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew, accepting the current international boundary". Arunachal Pradesh, state of India that constitutes a mountainous area in the extreme northeastern part of the country. There is two law colleges, namely, the private-owned Arunachal Law Academy at Itanagar and the government-owned Jarbom Gamlin Government Law College at Jote, Itanagar. The history of the Tani people is found in the ancient libraries of Tibet as the Tani people traded swords and other metals to Tibetans in exchange for meat and wool. diprarunx[at]gmail[dot]com. Directorate of Information and Public Relations College, Changeling (Grade C). NEW DELHI: Despite the nationwide lockdown and fear of a contagion due to the coronavirus, the Border Roads Organisation has constructed a major strategic bridge in Arunachal Pradesh that will provide adequate movement of supplies to about 3,000 troops deployed along the Line of Actual Control with China and ensure quick mobilisation during contingencies at … The villages of Dong (more accessible by car, and with a lookout favoured by tourists) and Vijaynagar (on the edge of Myanmar) receive the first sunlight in all of India. [58] The state has Mouling and Namdapha national parks. This is the form of cultivation that sustains majority of the people in the area which is been practiced from earlier days. Most of the Tani languages are mutually intelligible with at least one other Tani language, meaning that the area constitutes a dialect chain, as was once found in much of Europe; only Apatani and Milang stand out as relatively unusual in the Tani context. The high linguistic significance these languages is belied by the extreme paucity of documentation and description of them, even in view of their highly endangered status. [76] Alliance Air operates the only scheduled flights to the state flying from Kolkata via Guwahati to Pasighat Airport. (iv) Marketing Exhibition and Trade Fair matters relating to. Company Name : Arunachal Pradesh Public Service Commission PSC Building, Vidhan Vihar, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh Category : View Details >> City : Itanagar : State: Arunachal Pradesh: Industry : Govt & Defence & Embassies : Sub Industry : Govt & Defence & Embassies To begin with, the following industries will have priority. Arunachal Pradesh chief minister Pema Khandu announced this on Friday while speaking at a function in Tawang to felicitate newly elected gram … As of the 2011 Census of India, Arunachal Pradesh has a population of 1,382,611 and an area of 83,743 square kilometres (32,333 sq mi). In the east, one finds the Adi with many subtribes including Padam, Pasi, Minyong and Bokar, among others. The state's mountain ranges, in the extreme East of India, are described as "the place where the sun rises" in historical Indian texts and named the Aruna Mountains, which inspired the name of the state. In 2008, the government of Arunachal Pradesh signed numerous memorandum of understanding with various companies planning some 42 hydroelectric schemes that will produce electricity in excess of 27,000 MW. The College of Horticulture and Forestry is affiliated to the Central Agricultural University, Imphal. [46] China had objected to the Dalai Lama's previous visits to the area.[47]. Textiles (handlooms and power looms) and handicrafts. It borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south. In February 2016, Kalikho Pul became the Chief Minister when 14 disqualified MLAs were reinstated by the Supreme Court. In the time that China did not exercise power in Tibet, the line had no serious challenges. British administrator Sir Henry McMahon drew the 550 miles (890 km) McMahon Line as the border between British India and Tibet, placing Tawang and other areas within British India. ARUN SIRI GAS AGENCY NAHARLAGUN. However, China soon declared victory, withdrew back to the McMahon Line and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963. India reiterated this to China when the two prime ministers met in Thailand in October 2009. (ii) Promotion of Small Scale Industries. There are also trust institutes, like Pali Vidyapith, run by Buddhists. [38] British records show that the condition for the Tibetan government to accept the new border was that China must accept the Simla Convention. Arunachal Pradesh is a natural garden of more than 20,000 identified species of medicinal plants and many more still remain unidentified. ITANAGAR: The Arunachal Pradesh government decided to resume coal mining in the state, which has been suspended since May, 2012 after a direction by the Centre following involvement of insurgent groups in the extraction process, officials said here on Tuesday. The new Chinese government still considered the McMahon Line invalid. It shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Myanmar in the east, and a disputed border with China in the north at the McMahon Line. He was succeeded by Pema Khandu as the INC Chief Minister who later joined PPA in September 2016 along with majority of MLAs. (iii) Industrial Estates/Growth Centres/District Industries Centre. Primarily as a result of the primary education system—in which classes are generally taught by Hindi-speaking immigrant teachers from Bihar and other Hindi-speaking parts of northern India, a large and growing section of the population now speaks a semi-creolised variety of Hindi as a mother tongue. [37], The Chinese position was that Tibet was not independent from China and could not sign treaties, so the Accord was invalid, like the Anglo-Chinese (1906) and Anglo-Russian (1907) conventions. For the hill at Thiruvannamalai, see, sfn error: no target: CITEREFRichardson1984 (, "Dalai Lama's visit to Arunachal nostalgic: Top aide", CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Foreigners (Protected Areas) Order 1958 (India), Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests, Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests, Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Arunachal Pradesh State Transport Services, List of institutions of higher education in Arunachal Pradesh, Indira Gandhi Technological and Medical Sciences University, North East Frontier Technical University (NEFTU), North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, National Assessment and Accreditation Council, List of symbols of Indian states and territories, Ministry for Development of North Eastern Region, 2014 Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly election, 2009 Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly election, "Retired Armyman BD Mishra Appointed New Arunachal Governor", "Pema Khandu sworn in as Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh", "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)", "Basic Statistical Figure of Arunachal Pradesh", "Official Web Page of Government of Arunachal Pradesh", The site can be dated between 8th-15th century, District Handbook of Lower Dibang District. (x) Apprenticeship Training Programme. (ix) Industrial Training Programme. The Department of Industries, Government of Arunachal Pradesh will be the primary section for all sorts of quality control of all sorts of industrial products available in the state. [66] Construction of the Upper Siang Hydroelectric Project, which is expected to generate between 10,000 and 12,000 MW, began in April 2009.[67]. Access to central Arunachal Pradesh has been facilitated by the Bogibeel Bridge, an earthquake-resistant rail and road bridge over the Brahmaputra River in Assam, opened for public use on 25 December 2018 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. A number of speakers of these languages are also found in Tibet. College, Kamki (Grade B), and Rang Frah Govt. Naharkatiya, Narayanpur of Lakhimpur districts of Assam. New Industrial Policy of Arunachal Pradesh 2001 Arunachal Pradesh is the largest state among the North Eastern States, having an area of 83743 Sq Km, with a population pf just above 1 million. The chart below displays the trend of the gross state domestic product of Arunachal Pradesh at market prices by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in billions of Indian Rupees. Among the crops grown here are rice, maize, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, ginger, and oilseeds. Arunachal is also ideal for horticulture and fruit orchards. [13][14][15], The war resulted in the termination of barter trade with Tibet, although since 2007 the Indian government has shown signs of wanting to resume barter trade.[41]. [40], What is now Arunachal Pradesh was established as the North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA) in 1954 and Sino-Indian relations were cordial until 1960. [88], Arunachal Pradesh got its first railway line in late 2013 with the opening of the new link line from Harmuti on the main Rangpara North-Murkongselak railway line to Naharlagun in Arunachal Pradesh. Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak, and the Eastern Gorichen peak are other tall Himalaya peaks. In Aalo, West Siang District by The Automobile Society India, New Delhi. [44], In recent years, China has occasionally asserted its claims on Tawang. As of 2007[update], every village is connected by road, thanks to funding provided by the central government. The number of literate males is 454,532 (73.69%) and the number of literate females is 335,411 (59.57%). A major part of the state is claimed by both the People's Republic of China and Republic of China (Taiwan) as part of the region of South Tibet. Industries based on locally available raw materials. Arunachal is also ideal for horticulture and fruit orchards. Email : dipr_arunx[at]rediffmail[dot]com The third heritage site, the 400-year-old Tawang Monastery in the extreme north-west of the state, provides some historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal people. A small number of Arunachali people have traditionally identified as Hindus,[71] although the number may grow as animist traditions are absorbed into Hinduism. Arunachal Pradesh (/ˌərʊˌnɑːtʃəl prəˈdeɪʃ/, literally "land of dawn-lit mountains")[12] is a state in Northeast India. Tani languages are among the better-studied languages of the region. A relatively large percentage of Arunachal's population are nature worshippers (indigenous religions), and follow their own distinct traditional institutions like the Nyedar Namlo by the Nyishi, the Rangfrah by the Tangsa & Nocte, Medar Nelo by the Apatani, the Kargu Gamgi by the Galo and Donyi-Polo Dere by the Adi under the umbrella of the indigenous religion the Donyi-Polo. India plans to eventually extend the railway to Tawang, near the border with China.[91]. [54] In 2013, 31,273 km2 (12,075 sq mi) of Arunachal's forests were identified as part of a vast area of continuous forests (65,730 km2 or 25,380 sq mi, including forests in Myanmar, China and Bhutan) known as Intact forest landscapes. Notes on ancient temples and other remains in the vicinity of Sadiya by Major S.F.Hannay, "Arunachal Pradesh - Government and society", "Thousands flock to see Dalai Lama in Indian state", "Arunachal becomes 2nd NE state to achieve ODF status", "The last frontiers of wilderness: Tracking loss of intact forest landscapes from 2000 to 2013", "Ethnomedicinal botany of the Apatani in the Eastern Himalayan region of India", "Administrative jurisdiction of divisions and districts", "India pre-empts Chinese design in Arunachal", "Census of India: Provisional Population Tables – Census 2011", "Population by religion community – 2011", "How churches in Arunachal Pradesh are facing resistance over conversion of tribals", "Census of India : C-1 Population By Religious Community", "Census of India – Religious Composition", "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India", "How Hindi became the language of choice in Arunachal Pradesh", "PMO ends tussle between AAI and Arunachal", "Arunachal's first commercial flight lands at Pasighat airport", "Govt considering setting up of 3 greenfield airports in NE", "Itanagar-Dimapur bus service flagged off", "Top officials to meet to expedite road building along China border", "Narendra Modi government to provide funds for restoration of damaged highways", "Indian Government Plans Highway Along Disputed China Border", "Govt planning road along McMohan line in Arunachal Pradesh: Kiren Rijiju", "China warns India against paving road in Arunachal", "Arunachal Pradesh Capital Itanagar Put on India's Railway Map", "Arunachal Pradesh now on railway map, train reaches Naharlagun, a town near capital Itanagar", "Modi to flag off first train from Arunachal to Delhi", Official Site of the government of Arunachal Pradesh, Official Tourism Site of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Autonomous administrative divisions of India, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arunachal_Pradesh&oldid=1002576003#Economy, English-speaking countries and territories, States and territories established in 1987, Articles with dead external links from April 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles needing additional references from May 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 02:25. 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