11:17-34). Various nontrinitarian views, such as Adoptionism, Monarchianism, and Arianism existed prior to the formal definition of the Trinity doctrine in AD 325, 360, and 431, at the Councils of Nicaea, Constantinople, and Ephesus, respectively. [71] For this reason, they often focus on the baptisms in Acts. It is 2 Cor. In the previous column, we examined the personhood of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The father, son and Holy Spirit are one being, just as man is made up of body, soul, and spirit. (Scripture's attribution of Knowing to any one Person at any one time is said to be just "appropriated" to the Person: it does not really belong to that unique Person). Learn about Author Central. The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Son, the eternal Word, is from all eternity the dwelling place of God; he is the "Father's house", just as the Son dwells in the Father and the Spirit; so that, when the Spirit is "given", then it happens as Jesus said, "I will not leave you as orphans; for I will come to you. Nontrinitarian views differ widely on the nature of God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit. 2006. While it remained unsold, did it not remain your own? On the other hand, the Cappadocian Fathers argued that the Holy Spirit was equal to the Father and Son in nature or substance. The Holy Spirit is God. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His." Although the main text used in defense of the deity of the Holy Spirit was Matthew 28:19, Cappadocian Fathers such as Basil the Great argued from other verses such as "But Peter said, 'Ananias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit and to keep back for yourself part of the proceeds of the land? [41] Other Church Fathers, such as Gregory Nazianzen, argued in his Orations that the revelation was gradual, claiming that the Father was proclaimed in the Old Testament openly, but the Son only obscurely, because "it was not safe, when the Godhead of the Father was not yet acknowledged, plainly to proclaim the Son".[42]. Augustine defined all of the following to be true: The Son is God. Pueblo, CO 81008 [83] They cannot be separate from one another. Each of the Three is able to talk to each other as distinct Person (like when God the Son prayed to God the Father). 117 comments. Tel: (719) 487-7888 | Fax: (719) 896-5410 [36], The Cappadocian Fathers also quoted, "Do you not know that you are God's temple and that God's Spirit dwells in you?" Then, he says, his disciples will dwell in him, as he dwells in the Father, and the Father dwells in him, and the Father will dwell in them. [36], In addition, the Old Testament has also been interpreted as foreshadowing the Trinity, by referring to God's word (Psalm 33:6), his spirit (Isaiah 61:1), and Wisdom (Proverbs 9:1), as well as narratives such as the appearance of the three men to Abraham. As stated in the Athanasian Creed, the Father is uncreated, the Son is uncreated, and the Holy Spirit is uncreated, and all three are eternal without beginning. "[100][101], Reaffirming the theopaschite formula unus de trinitate passus est carne (meaning "One of the Trinity suffered in the flesh"),[102] Thomas Aquinas wrote that Jesus suffered and died as to his human nature, as to his divine nature he could not suffer or die. His abode is the Fire. The Father is the Source, the Son is the Means, and the Holy Spirit is the Effector of salvation—it is He who convicts, convinces, and converts. Yes, it’s understandable that those Christian leaders who lived a few centuries after Jesus Christ died were confused by the Bible’s statements about Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. [104] Deeply affected by the atomic bombs event,[105] as early as 1946 the Lutheran theologian Kazoh Kitamori published Theology of the Pain of God,[106] a theology of the Cross pushed up to the immanent Trinity. 2:10-11), people are baptized in Jesus’ name (1 Cor. The term "immanent Trinity" focuses on who God is; the term “economic Trinity” focuses on what God does. Matthew and his Christian contemporaries. level 2. [67] He defended and refined the Nicene formula. Most scholars of New Testament textual criticism accept the authenticity of the passage, since there are no variant manuscripts regarding the formula,[72] and the extant form of the passage is attested in the Didache[73] and other patristic works of the 1st and 2nd centuries: Ignatius,[74] Tertullian,[75] Hippolytus,[76] Cyprian,[77] and Gregory Thaumaturgus.[78]. The doctrine of the Trinity was used to oppose alternative views of how the three are related and to defend the church against charges of worshiping two or three gods. They surely disbelieve who say: Lo! [57], Baptism is generally conferred with the Trinitarian formula, "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit". Verse 5:73 has been interpreted as a potential criticism of Syriac literature that references Jesus as "the third of three" and thus an attack on the view that Christ was divine. He has traveled nationally and internationally at conferences and conducted mission ventures such as church planting, starting orphanages, clinics, feeding programs among the poorest of the poor and the most unreached people of the earth. For, in the divine nature by which He is equal to the Father. Patriarch Photius (9th century) was the first Orthodox theologian to explicitly spell out the Greek opposition to the Filioque concept, but the debate continued throughout the Middle Ages. The story of Stephen depicts Stephen invoking and crying out to Jesus in the final moments of his life to receive his spirit (7:59-60). However, in Eastern Orthodoxy the Ancient of Days is usually understood to be God the Son, not God the Father (see below) — early Byzantine images show Christ as the Ancient of Days,[130] but this iconography became rare. Although therefore the Father is one person, the Son another person and the holy Spirit another person, they are not different realities, but rather that which is the Father is the Son and the holy Spirit, altogether the same; thus according to the orthodox and catholic faith they are believed to be consubstantial."[86]. John 14:19-26 - The Father, The Son, And The Holy Spirit. So the Bible tells us that "THE HOLY SPIRIT" is the Father's own divine Spirit, which He has given to His Son Jesus, and comes to us through Christ, NOT some other 'third being'. Praise the Father the Son and the Holy Spirit.Read the Holy Bible. Understanding the Basics. Many who believe the Trinity admit that they are not able to explain this teaching. They put her on medicine but it makes her so sick and the other medicine … God the Father Son and Holy Spirit Mary and Joseph Read More » The idea of God as a duality or trinity is heretical — it is even considered by some to be polytheistic. Here is a model of a perfect, most sublime authority-submission relationship displayed in the supremacy of the Father, subordination of the Son to the Father wherein the Son glories in the Father, the Father glories in the Son, the Spirit submitting to the Father and the Son. hide. [44] The Old Testament theophanies were thus seen as Christophanies, each a "preincarnate appearance of the Messiah".[45]. Obey Jesus Christ. He is co-founder of the annual Los Angeles Theology Conference and maintains an active internet presence via Twitter and blog. Our tendency can be to appropriate certain attributes to particular persons of the Trinity, but in doing so we must be guided by scripture. If the Father is not the Son or the Spirit since the generator/begetter is not the generated/begotten nor the generation/generative process and vice versa, and since the lover is neither the beloved nor the love dynamic between them and vice versa, Christianity has provided as a response a concept of divine ontology and love different from common sense (omnipotence, omnibenevolence, impassibility, etc. God is the third of three; when there is no Lord save the One Lord. When I contemplate the Three together, I see but one torch, and cannot divide or measure out the undivided light. [26] John also portrays Jesus as the agent of creation of the universe. [65] By the end of the 4th century, under the leadership of Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzus (the Cappadocian Fathers), the doctrine had reached substantially its current form.[65]. [4] In this context, a "nature" is what one is, whereas a "person" is who one is.[5]. - Christian Classics Ethereal Library", Enchiridion symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum, "NPNF2-09. In loving himself the Holy Spirit proceeded from the Father and the Son. Then in Genesis 19, two of the visitors were addressed by Lot in the singular: "Lot said to them, 'Not so, my lord'" (Gen. 19:18)[43] Augustine saw that Lot could address them as one because they had a single substance, despite the plurality of persons. In earlier representations both Father, especially, and Son often wear elaborate robes and crowns. "Matthew 14–28." I only see two planes here. Acts 4:1-4 - Peter And John Arrested. It’s through the sacrifice of Christ and belief in his blood that we can attest to God’s righteousness and have this access for the forgiveness of sins and be reconciled to God. [Mt 28:19] Trinitarians identify this name with the Christian faith into which baptism is an initiation, as seen for example in the statement of Basil the Great (330–379): "We are bound to be baptized in the terms we have received, and to profess faith in the terms in which we have been baptized." We read in Rom. God is the Messiah, son of Mary. Father, Son and Holy Spirit, Regarding the difference between the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, the theologian John Wesley said, “Bring me a worm that can comprehend a man, and then I will show you a man that can comprehend the triune God !” The study of God is the highest subject any human can ever even attempt to comprehend. The subset of Christianity that accepts this doctrine is collectively known as Trinitarianism, while the subset that does not is referred to as Nontrinitarianism (see also Arianism). Kupp, David D. Matthew's Emmanuel: Divine presence and God's people in the first gospel. Sometimes the Father alone wears a crown, or even a papal tiara. best. 2 years ago. The Father, the Son, and th… Without the Spirit’s agency in salvation, all that Christ has accomplished brings no value to us. [43] He saw no indication that the visitors were unequal, as would be the case in Justin's reading. For other uses, see, Christian doctrine that God is one God, but three coeternal consubstantial persons, Third Council of Constantinople (680-681), Augustine had poor knowledge of the Greek language, and no knowledge of Hebrew. The narrative has the Lord appearing to Abraham, who was visited by three men (Gen 18:1-2). In this style, the Father (sometimes seated on a throne) is shown supporting either a crucifix[131] or, later, a slumped crucified Son, similar to the Pietà (this type is distinguished in German as the Not Gottes),[132] in his outstretched arms, while the Dove hovers above or in between them. hide. For the Greeks the Father alone is the origin of both the Son and the Holy Spirit. So the Son is the eternal image that the Father has of his own perfections, and the Holy Spirit is the eternal love that flows between the Father and the Son as they delight in each other. Another passage the Cappadocian Fathers quoted from was "By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of his mouth all their host" (Psalm 33:6). Otherwise they would not be one God. God the Father, Jesus the Son, and the Holy Spirit all have the same divine nature and divine attributes. [120] Some scholars suggest that verse 5:73 is a reference to the Collyridians, an alleged small heretical group of Christians composed of women that venerated Mary above usual standards by other sects of Christianity. plurality of God within His being. The Son's will cannot be different from the Father's because it is the Father's. I thought it would be fitting to end on one more verse, one more place the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are mentioned. Magliola goes on to explain: Because such is the case (among other reasons), Karl Rahner rejects the "psychological" theories of Trinity which define the Father as Knower, for example, and the Son as the Known (i.e., Truth). Britannica Encyclopaedia of World Religions. God the Father displays personal attributes. Although the term “Trinity” is not used in the scriptures, the concept is undoubtedly a biblical theme. [127][128], The Trinity is most commonly seen in Christian art with the Spirit represented by a dove, as specified in the Gospel accounts of the Baptism of Christ; he is nearly always shown with wings outspread. Thus there is a distinction of persons but a unity of nature. [11], The Comma Johanneum in 1 John 5:7, is a disputed text which states: "There are three that testify in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit, and these three are one." 3. In the fourth century, Arianism, as traditionally understood,[note 2] taught that the Father existed prior to the Son who was not, by nature, God but rather a changeable creature who was granted the dignity of becoming "Son of God". ", "The Trinitarian Teaching of Saint Gregory Nazianzen", "Observations on the "Monotheism" Affirmed in the New Testament", "Paul and the Trinity: The experience of Christ and the Spirit for Paul's Understanding of God", "The Elements of Triadology in the New Testament", "The Persons in God and the Person of Christ in Patristic Theology: An Argument for Parallel Development", "Gregory of Nyssa's Trinitarian Theology in In Illud: Tunc et ipse filius. Baptising in the authority of the name Jesus was indeed baptising in the authority of the father who had given Jesus his authority. Transforming Lives Through the Message and Mission of Jesus Christ save. Author : Colin E. Gunton; Publisher : A&C Black; Release : 01 September 2003; GET THIS BOOK Father, Son and Holy Spirit. [122][123] Another interpretation is that this passage should be studied from a rhetorical perspective; so as not to be an error, but an intentional misrepresentation of the doctrine of the Trinity in order to demonstrate its absurdity from an Islamic perspective. The Son is identified by a lamb, the Father an Eye of Providence, and the Spirit a dove, painting by Fridolin Leiber (d. 1912), 13th-century depiction of the Trinity from a Roman de la Rose manuscript, Several terms redirect here. "[John 14:18]. Journal of Biblical Literature 135.4 (2016): 807-826. They are not the same but DIFFERENT; they are two DIFFERENT persons in the doctrine of the Trinity. The Latin equivalent for this term is circumincessio. Yet another argument from the Cappadocian Fathers to prove that the Holy Spirit is of the same nature as the Father and Son comes from "For who knows a person's thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? Modern nontrinitarian groups or denominations include Christadelphians, Christian Science, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Dawn Bible Students, Iglesia ni Cristo, Jehovah's Witnesses, Living Church of God, Oneness Pentecostals, the Seventh Day Church of God, Unitarian Christians, United Church of God, and The Shepherd's Chapel. [Gen 18][40] However, it is generally agreed among Trinitarian Christian scholars that it would go beyond the intention and spirit of the Old Testament to correlate these notions directly with later Trinitarian doctrine. Third, we don't believe that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are "parts" or "pieces" or God. 95% Upvoted. He explicitly defined the Trinity as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit and defended his theology against "Praxeas",[54] though he noted that the majority of the believers in his day found issue with his doctrine. According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, The Fathers of the Church distinguish between theology (theologia) and economy (oikonomia). [114] Following the adoption of trinitarianism at Constantinople in 381, Arianism was driven from the Empire, retaining a foothold amongst the Germanic tribes. What is the relationship between the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit? Likewise, the Cappadocian Fathers also insisted there was no economic inequality present within the Trinity. They have but one will as they have but one being. After more than fifty years of debate, homoousios was recognised as the hallmark of orthodoxy, and was further developed into the formula of "three persons, one being". Lo! 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